Usually, the cyberthreat landscape is described by using a linear approach that distinguishes either between (i) threat agents, (ii) threat tools, and (iii) threat types
or between (i) computer network exploitations, (ii) computer network attacks, and (iii) information operations
. While such categorizations are useful for certain legal qualifications, they do not paint a comprehensive picture of the very complex nature and characteristics of cyberthreats
. The array of external and internal agents endangering cybersecurity is mostly very wide, going from nation States to hackers and insiders.
Threat tools encompass malware and its variances as well as botnets. Threat types include information modification or misuse, information destruction, unauthorized access, data breach, data theft and distributed denial-of-service.